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Difference between revisions of "Carbohydrate Binding Module Family 67"

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CBM67 members are distributed not only in many bacterial GH78 α-ʟ-rhamnosidases, but also in some Basidiomycete lectins, family 1 pectate lyases, peptidases, and proteins of unknown functions. Protein alignment of candidate members of CBM67 identified five subfamilies within the constructed phylogenetic tree. Although the calcium binding site is conserved in the CBM67, these CBM67 might show different sugar specificity because the ʟ-rhamnose binding residues in SaCBM67 are not retaining in the other CBM67 members. For example, the lectin from ''Pleurotus cornucopiae'' contains two CBM67-like sequences in tandem with sequence identities against SaCBM67 of 25 and 35% for the N- and C-terminal modules respectively, shows highest affinity against ''N''-acetyl-ᴅ-galactosamine.
 
CBM67 members are distributed not only in many bacterial GH78 α-ʟ-rhamnosidases, but also in some Basidiomycete lectins, family 1 pectate lyases, peptidases, and proteins of unknown functions. Protein alignment of candidate members of CBM67 identified five subfamilies within the constructed phylogenetic tree. Although the calcium binding site is conserved in the CBM67, these CBM67 might show different sugar specificity because the ʟ-rhamnose binding residues in SaCBM67 are not retaining in the other CBM67 members. For example, the lectin from ''Pleurotus cornucopiae'' contains two CBM67-like sequences in tandem with sequence identities against SaCBM67 of 25 and 35% for the N- and C-terminal modules respectively, shows highest affinity against ''N''-acetyl-ᴅ-galactosamine.
 
 
 
''Content in this section should include, in paragraph form, a description of:''
 
* '''Functional role of CBM:''' Describe common functional roles such as targeting, disruptive, anchoring, proximity/position on substrate.
 
* '''Most Common Associated Modules:''' 1. Glycoside Hydrolase Activity; 2. Additional Associated Modules (other CBM, FNIII, cohesin, dockerins, expansins, etc.)
 
* '''Novel Applications:'''  Include here if CBM has been used to modify another enzyme, or if a CBM was used to label plant/mammalian tissues? Etc.
 
  
 
== Family Firsts ==
 
== Family Firsts ==

Revision as of 21:03, 9 June 2018

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CAZy DB link
http://www.cazy.org/CBM67.html

Ligand specificities

The sugar binding structure of a GH78 α-ʟ-rhamnosidase from Streptomyces avermitilis (SaRha78A) revealed a ʟ-rhamnose binding module CBM67 (SaCBM67) within the six-domain arrangement [1]. SaCBM67 bound ʟ-rhamnose and ʟ-mannose with a Ka of 7.2 × 103 M−1 and 3.6 × 103 M−1, and free energy of binding ΔG of −5.3 kcal/mol and −4.8 kcal/mol, respectively, but did not bind to ʟ-rhamnose in the presence of 5 mM EDTA [1]. Similarly the D179A and N180A mutants of SaCBM67, in which removed calcium-mediated and direct hydrogen bonds with ʟ-rhamnose, abolish ligand binding, confirming the importance of calcium in the binding of SaCBM67 to its ligand [1]. No binding to ʟ-galactose or ʟ-fucose was also observed [1].


Note: Here is an example of how to insert references in the text, together with the "biblio" section below: Please see these references for an essential introduction to the CAZy classification system: [2, 3]. CBMs, in particular, have been extensively reviewed [4, 5, 6, 7, 8].

Structural Features

Content in this section should include, in paragraph form, a description of:

  • Fold: Structural fold (beta trefoil, beta sandwich, etc.)
  • Type: Include here Type A, B, or C and properties
  • Features of ligand binding: Describe CBM binding pocket location (Side or apex) important residues for binding (W, Y, F, subsites), interact with reducing end, non-reducing end, planar surface or within polysaccharide chains. Include examples pdb codes. Metal ion dependent. Etc.

Functionalities

Although SaCBM67 showed 2 times higher affinity for ʟ-mannose than ʟ-rhamnose, SaCBM67 binds primarily to ʟ-rhamnose in biological systems because ʟ-mannose seldom exists in natural polysaccharides. Actually mutant enzymes deleted calcium-mediated and direct hydrogen bonds with ʟ-rhamnose caused a substantial reduction (∼50-fold) in activity against the ʟ-rhamnose-containing polysaccharide (the mutantions did not influence activity against aryl-rhamnosides) [1].

CBM67 members are distributed not only in many bacterial GH78 α-ʟ-rhamnosidases, but also in some Basidiomycete lectins, family 1 pectate lyases, peptidases, and proteins of unknown functions. Protein alignment of candidate members of CBM67 identified five subfamilies within the constructed phylogenetic tree. Although the calcium binding site is conserved in the CBM67, these CBM67 might show different sugar specificity because the ʟ-rhamnose binding residues in SaCBM67 are not retaining in the other CBM67 members. For example, the lectin from Pleurotus cornucopiae contains two CBM67-like sequences in tandem with sequence identities against SaCBM67 of 25 and 35% for the N- and C-terminal modules respectively, shows highest affinity against N-acetyl-ᴅ-galactosamine.

Family Firsts

First Identified
SaCBM67 from the S. avermitilis α-ʟ-rhamnosidase SaRha78A was the first member of the family to be identified and characterized. [1].
First Structural Characterization
The first structure in CBM67 is a module involved in BsRhaB from Bacillus sp. GL1 [9], but the function of the module has not been demonstrated. The first structure-based characterization of a member of family CBM67 was SaCBM67 [1].

References

  1. Fujimoto Z, Jackson A, Michikawa M, Maehara T, Momma M, Henrissat B, Gilbert HJ, and Kaneko S. (2013) The structure of a Streptomyces avermitilis α-L-rhamnosidase reveals a novel carbohydrate-binding module CBM67 within the six-domain arrangement. J Biol Chem. 288, 12376-85. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M113.460097 | PubMed ID:23486481 | HubMed [Fujimoto2013]
  2. Davies, G.J. and Sinnott, M.L. (2008) Sorting the diverse: the sequence-based classifications of carbohydrate-active enzymes. The Biochemist, vol. 30, no. 4., pp. 26-32. Download PDF version.
    [DaviesSinnott2008]
  3. Boraston AB, Bolam DN, Gilbert HJ, and Davies GJ. (2004) Carbohydrate-binding modules: fine-tuning polysaccharide recognition. Biochem J. 382, 769-81. DOI:10.1042/BJ20040892 | PubMed ID:15214846 | HubMed [Boraston2004]
  4. Hashimoto H (2006) Recent structural studies of carbohydrate-binding modules. Cell Mol Life Sci. 63, 2954-67. DOI:10.1007/s00018-006-6195-3 | PubMed ID:17131061 | HubMed [Hashimoto2006]
  5. Shoseyov O, Shani Z, and Levy I. (2006) Carbohydrate binding modules: biochemical properties and novel applications. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 70, 283-95. DOI:10.1128/MMBR.00028-05 | PubMed ID:16760304 | HubMed [Shoseyov2006]
  6. Guillén D, Sánchez S, and Rodríguez-Sanoja R. (2010) Carbohydrate-binding domains: multiplicity of biological roles. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 85, 1241-9. DOI:10.1007/s00253-009-2331-y | PubMed ID:19908036 | HubMed [Guillen2010]
  7. Armenta S, Moreno-Mendieta S, Sánchez-Cuapio Z, Sánchez S, and Rodríguez-Sanoja R. (2017) Advances in molecular engineering of carbohydrate-binding modules. Proteins. 85, 1602-1617. DOI:10.1002/prot.25327 | PubMed ID:28547780 | HubMed [Armenta2017]
  8. Cui Z, Maruyama Y, Mikami B, Hashimoto W, and Murata K. (2007) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 78 alpha-L-Rhamnosidase from Bacillus sp. GL1. J Mol Biol. 374, 384-98. DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2007.09.003 | PubMed ID:17936784 | HubMed [Cui2007]
All Medline abstracts: PubMed | HubMed